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Elderly woman talking to carer sitting on a sofa

Work Package 2


This framework will help to identify criteria (such as efficiency, fairness, accessibility) that decision-makers might use in resource allocation decisions.

Conceptual framework

The project is developing a conceptual framework covering the potential connections between:


Needs of individuals for care, treatment and support.

Resources ('inputs' ) used to alleviate symptoms, improve functioning, promote wellbeing and so on. Important resources include staff, buildings and medications, but the most is usually the unpaid care and support from family and friends.

Costs of these resource inputs expressed in monetary terms.

Service volumes and qualities ('outputs') achieved by combining the resources – not objectives of a care system but obviously achievements in their own right.

Outcomes for individuals and carers achieved by prevention, treatment, care and support. They can be gauged in terms of symptom alleviation, behavioural change, better personal and social functioning, improved quality of life.

Non-resource inputs have no readily identified cost but can exert big influences. Examples are the social milieu of a group care setting, an inpatient ward ‘environment’, personal histories of service users and the attitudes of staff.

Commissioning and funding links between budgets and services: the channels along which funds flow from funding bodies to providers.

Revenue collection, the process by which funds reach care systems from households, organisations, companies and donors.

Martin Knapp, Raphael Wittenberg, Adelina Comas-Herrera, Sube Banerjee

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